The ability to survey and compare genetic variation genome-wide has revolutionized the study of evolutionary genomics. We sequence and compare genomes across species, populations, and individuals to address questions related to phylogenetics, population genetic structure and demographics, the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, and to study the interplay between divergence and gene flow among populations and species. Thankfully, butterflies have small genomes (200-400 Mbp) so we can generate good reference assemblies with relative ease and population resequencing at scale is feasible. On the other hand, poison dart frogs have large genomes (6-9 Gbp) that are highly repetitive, which makes genome assembly and analysis more complicated. Methods for genome sequencing and assembly are constantly improving and these will continue to empower the genomic revolution in evolutionary biology.
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